FIKO is a private industrial company, owner of titanium mill in Kiev, Ukraine, for melting titanium ingots with their further working into rolled titanium materials: bars, tubes, sheets, plates, wire.

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FIKO is a private industrial company, owner of titanium mill in Kiev, Ukraine, for melting titanium ingots with their further working into rolled titanium materials: bars, tubes, sheets, plates, wire.

 

Metallurgy

Aviation

Chemical industry

Shipbuilding

Motor-car construction

 

ABOUT TITANIUM

 

Titanium materials application in aviation

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Titanium disks manufacturing

Technical process layout of manufacture titanium tubes

 

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Ultrasonic inspection in metallurgy

 

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Titanium ingots and slabs  manufacturing

 

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Titanium bars manufacturing

Manufacture of titanium ingots and titanium slabs        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Applications

Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and with other metals. Applications for titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) can be found in industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.

 

Pigments, Additives and Coatings

About 95% of titanium ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into titanium dioxide (TiO2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics. It is also used in cement, in gemstones, as an optical opacifier in paper, and a strengthening agent in graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs.

TiO2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: this allows it to impart a pure and brilliant white color to the brown or gray chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. In nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and rutile. Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe temperatures, is somewhat self-cleaning, and stands up to marine environments. Pure titanium dioxide has a very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than diamond.

Recently, it has been put to use in air purifiers (as a filter coating), or in film used to coat windows on buildings which when exposed to UV light (either solar or man-made) and moisture in the air produces reactive redox species like hydroxyl radicals that can purify the air or keep window surfaces clean.

 

Aerospace and marine

Due to their high tensile strength to density ratio, high corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, titanium alloys are used in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. For these applications titanium alloyed with aluminium, vanadium, and other elements is used for a variety of components including critical structural parts, fire walls, landing gear, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames. The SR-71 "Blackbird" was one of the first aircraft to make extensive use of titanium within its structure, paving the way for its use in modern fighter and commercial aircraft. An estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are used in the Boeing 777, 45 in the 747, 18 in the 737, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18 in the A330, and 12 in the A320. The A380 may use 146 metric tons, including about 26 tons in the engines. In engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles. The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications.

Due to its high corrosion resistance to sea water, titanium is used to make propeller shafts and rigging and in the heat exchangers of desalination plants; in heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and for divers' knives. Titanium is used to manufacture the housings and other components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for scientific and military use. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines largely out of titanium, which became both the fastest and deepest diving submarines ever made.

Titanium commercial aerospace requirements (including engine components [e.g., blades, discs, rings and engine cases] and airframe components [e.g., bulkheads, tail sections, landing gear, wing supports and fasteners]) for the manufacture of:

Boeing (including both the airframes and engines)

  • B787 – 295,000 pounds (133.8 tonne) of titanium

  • B777 – 130,000 pounds (59 tonne) of titanium

  • B747 – 100,000 pounds (45.4 tonne) of titanium

  • B737 – 40,000 pounds (18.1 tonne) of titanium

Airbus (including both the airframes and engines)

  • A380 – 320,000 pounds (145.1 tonne) of titanium

  • A350 – 165,000 pounds (74.8 tonne) of titanium (estimated minimal requirement)

  • A340 – 70,000 pounds (31.8 tonne) of titanium

  • A330 – 40,000 pounds (18.1 tonne) of titanium

  • A320 – 26,000 pounds (11.8 tonne) of titanium

Industrial

Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves) are used in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are used in downhole and nickel hydrometallurgy applications due to their high strength titanium Beta C, corrosion resistance, or combination of both. The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in the bleachery). Other applications include: ultrasonic welding, wave soldering, and sputtering targets

 

Watch with titanium cover

 

Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in automobile or motorcycle racing, where weight reduction is critical while maintaining high strength and rigidity. The metal is generally too expensive to make it marketable to the general consumer market, other than high-end products, particularly for the racing/performance market. Late model Corvettes have been available with titanium exhausts, and racing bikes are frequently outfitted with titanium mufflers and titanium fastener kits (i.e., nuts and bolts), to reduce sprung weight while still being able to withstand the stresses of racing. Titanium alloy is used for the connecting rods in the engine of the 2006 and later Corvette Z06. Other automotive uses include piston rods and hardware (bolts, nuts, etc.). Very exotic performance vehicles often make greater use of the material, and custom factory (non-homologated) racing vehicles make extensive use of it.

The Parker Pen Company used titanium to form the T-1 fountain pen, later expanded to T-1 ball pens and rollerballs. The T-1 fountain pen was introduced in 1970 and the T-1 rollerball and ball pen in 1971. Production was stopped in 1972 due to the high cost of manufacturing titanium. Parker T-1's are prized for their collectibility by collectors.

Hammer heads made of titanium were introduced in 1999. Their light weight allows for a longer handle which increases the velocity of the head and results in more energy being delivered to the nail, all while decreasing arm fatigue. Titanium also decreases the shock transferred to the user because a titanium head generates about 3% recoil compared to a steel head that generates about 27%.

Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet grills; and bicycle frames and components. Titanium alloys are also used in spectacle frames. This results in a rather expensive, but highly durable and long lasting frame which is light in weight and causes no skin allergies. Many backpackers use titanium equipment, including cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Though slightly more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives, these titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising strength. Titanium is also favored for use by farriers, since it is lighter and more durable than steel when formed into horseshoes. Titanium horseshoes can be found in horse racing, and are used by many Amish horse owners, who rely entirely on horse-drawn carriages for transportation.

Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for designer jewelry in recent years, whereas until recently the metal was too difficult to work into the intricate shapes with the precision necessary for fine jewelry. Today, titanium rings — including engagement rings and wedding bands — are one of the fastest growing segments of the titanium jewelry market, in part due to the ability of the metal to be grooved, inlaid, and carved without losing strength. Some titanium jewelry also incorporates diamonds or other gemstones, typically in close settings such as bezels, flush, or tension designs. Its inertness again makes it a good choice for those with allergies or those who will be wearing the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools. Titanium is used in watchmaking for the production of watch cases. Watchmakers appreciate titanium for its durability, light weight, dent- and corrosion- resistance. Titanium watches are often coated with a protective material to make the surface more scratch-resistant.

Titanium has occasionally been used in architectural applications: the 120 foot (40 m) memorial to Yuri Gagarin, the first man to travel in space, in Moscow, is made of titanium for the metal's attractive color and association with rocketry. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in Europe and North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium panels. Other construction uses of titanium sheathing include the Frederic C. Hamilton Building in (Denver, Colorado) and the 350 foot (107 m) Monument to the Conquerors of Space in Moscow.

Due to its superior strength and light weight when compared to other metals traditionally used in firearms (steel, stainless steel, and aluminium), and advances in metal-working techniques, the use of titanium has become more widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Primary uses include pistol frames and revolver cylinders.

 

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