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FIKO is a private industrial company, owner of titanium mill in Kiev, Ukraine, for melting titanium ingots with their further working into rolled titanium materials: bars, tubes, sheets, plates, wire.

 
   

Ultrasonic inspection in metallurgy

 

ULTRASOUND. The special sections of science and technique are devoted for resilient waves of high frequency. A human ear perceives spreading resilient waves in an environment with frequency to 16 000 vibrations are approximate in a second (Hertz); vibrations with more high frequency are an ultrasound Ultrasonic(beyond the hearing). Usually an ultrasonic range is considered the frequency range from 20 000 to a few milliards hertz. Although scientists knew about existence of ultrasound a long ago, its practical use began comparatively recently in science, technique and industry. Now an ultrasound is widely used in different physical and technological methods. Through speed of sound spreading in an environment it is judged about its physical characteristics. Measurements of speed on ultrasonic frequencies are made to a high accuracy; hence adiabatic characteristics of fastrunning processes, values of specific heat of gases, resilient constants of solids are determined with very small errors, for example.

 

Flaw detection. Sounding with ultrasonic impulses is used and for researches of properties of different materials and production from them. Penetrate into the solids, such impulses are reflected from their bounds, and also from different foreign matters in the stratum of investigated  medium, such as cavities, cracks and other, indicating  their location. An ultrasound check up the material, not causing destructions in it. Quality of massive steel forgings, aluminium blocks, railway rails, welded seam of machines are checked up by such non-destructive methods of control.

 

Flaw detection is presumptive name of non-destructive methods of control of materials (production); use for finding out violations of entirety or homogeneity of macrostructure, deviation of chemical composition and other aims. The most widespread are ultrasonic inspection, X-ray examination, scale inspection, luminescence flaw detection, capillary inspection, magnetic inspection , thermo-electric- and triboelectric flaw detection.

 

Electro-inductive fault detection (tokovikhrevaya fault detection), based on co-operation of the fields of vortical currents, excited the sensor of fault detector in the controlled detail, with the same sensor. Allows to automatize control of quality provoloki, pipes and etc at their production, to assort some materials on brands and other   Ultrasonic soldering. Kavitatsiya, conditioned powerful ultrasonic waves in metallic fusions and destroying okisnuyu tape of aluminium, allows to conduct his soldering a tin solder without a gumboil. Wares from the metals soldered an ultrasound became the ordinary manufactured goods

 

Ultrasonic tooling. Energy of ultrasound is successfully used for machine treatment of details. A tip from littlecarbon steel, executed in Ultrasonicaccordance with the form of transversal section of the desired opening (or cavities), is fastened a hard solder by the end of the truncated metallic cone which an ultrasonic generator affects (thus amplitude of vibrations makes to 0,025 mm). UltrasonicIn a gap between a steel tip and processed detail liquid suspenziya of abrasive is given (carbide of the coniferous forest). As an abrasive, but not steel chisel, comes forward in such method a cutting element, he allows to process very hard and fragile materials flowed, ceramics, alniko (FeNiCoAl-сплав), carbide of tungsten, hard-tempered steel; in addition, it is possible to process openings and cavities of difficult form an ultrasound, because relative motion of detail and cutting instrument can be not only rotatory.

 

Ultrasonic cleaning. An important technological problem is cleaning of surface of metal or glass from small extraneous particales, fatty tapes and other types of contamination. Wherein the hand cleaning is too labour intensive or the special degree of cleanness of surface is needed, an ultrasound is used. A powerful ultrasonic radiation (creating variable accelerations with frequency to 106 Hertzs) is entered in a cavitation washing liquid, and collapse cavitation bubbles blow off from the processed surface undesirable particles. In industry a lot of different ultrasonic equipment is applied for cleaning of surfaces of quartz crystals and optical glass, small sensitive ball-bearings, removing burrs from small details; it is used and on conveyer lines.

 

Application in biology and medicine. That an ultrasound actively affects biological objects (for example, kills a bacterium), is known already more than 70 years. The ultrasonic sterilizers of surgical instruments are used in hospitals and clinics. An electronic equipment with a scanning ultrasonic ray targets finding out brain-growthes and raising of diagnosis, used in neurosurgery for inactivation of separate areas of brain by a powerful in-focus high-frequency (about 1000 kgz) beam. But most widely an ultrasound is used in therapy at treatment a lumbago, myalgia and contusions, although until now among physicians there is not single opinion of concrete mechanism of influence of ultrasound on diseased organs. High-frequency vibrations cause the internal break of tissues, accompanied, possibly, by a micromassage.

 

Discovery and measuring by an ultrasound. Energy of the acoustic field is determined mainly sound pressure and speed of particles of environment in which a sound spreads. Usually sound pressure in gases (air) and liquids (water) has 10-310-6 pressure of environment (equal 1 atm at the level of sea). Pressure of ultrasonic wave exceeds this value in thousands times and is easily revealed by microphones in air and hydrophones in water. The special facilities of measuring are developed for a reception and receipt of quantitative descriptions of ultrasonic radiation, especially on high frequencies. As waves of compression and dilution in gases and liquids change the index of refraction of environment, for visualization of these processes optical methods are created. At the reflection of ultrasound in closed loop system a standing wave is formed, affecting emitter. In the devices of such type, named ultrasonic interferometers, a wavelength in an environment is determined with very high exactness, that allows to get the information of physical descriptions of environment. Using an intensive ultrasonic beam it is possible to estimate and measure pressure of ultrasonic radiation, like that, how it is done at measuring of light pressure. This pressure is related to the power density of the ultrasonic field and allows by the simplest method to define intensity of spreading ultrasonic wave.

 

Application of ultrasound in non-destructive test. The first attempts to use an ultrasound for the search of discontinuities in a metal belong  to 1930th years, since 1950th ultrasonic check (USC) becomes very widespread, and for responsible wares obligatory. There is a great number of methods of USC, the most often there is so-called echo-method. In this method the short (1-5 periods) impulse of ultrasound is sent in the probed object. This impulse is reflected from discontinuity flaw and acts on a receiving sensor. At the moment of run of impulse in material it is determined the distance to discontinuity flaw, and on amplitude -its relative size (more large defects give more loud echo). Characteristic frequencies of ultrasound, used for UZK, it is 1-10 Mhz.

 

Electro-inductive flaw detection (eddy current flaw detection), based on co-operation of the fields of eddy currents, excited by the sensor of fault detector in the controlled detail, with the same sensor. Allows to automatize control of quality wire, pipes and etc at their production, to assort some materials on brands and other.

 

 

Application of ultrasonic testing on plant of electron-beam metallurgy FIKO

Titanium ingots are machined before conducting ultrasonic test.  After conducting of complete technological cycle of preparation of titanium ingots for ultrasonic test remains titanium scrap is given for production for second remelt of titanium ingots.

The prepared titanium ingot  for ultrasonic test is placed on a special stand for conducting ultrasonic test. Experts on carrying out of the ultrasonic control of titanic ingots use modern devices and the equipment on carrying out of the ultrasonic control of titanic ingots. All production - titanium bars, titanium  ingots are exposed to ultrasonic test. After carrying out of the ultrasonic test it is given the special certificates, which certify the conducting of ultrasonic test of titanium ingot, titanium bars, titanium tanks and titanium sheets. The ultrasonic test help to avoid  unpleasant moments concerned with presence of blisters and pinholes internal of as well titanium ingot as titanium ingots, titanium bars and copper bars, aluminium bars, aluminium ingots. Ultrasonic test is conducted for all titanium ingot, titanium ingots, machined titanium ingots and hot rolled titanium bars.

For manufacture of titanium tubes, titanium seamless tubes, titanium welded tubes it is uses titanium tubing billet and   titanium tubing billet is ultrasonic tested previously. Ultrasonic test of titanium tubing billet allows avoiding imperfection producing titanium tubes, titanium seamless tubes, titanium welded tubes. Titanium tubes and titanium tubing billet are required conducting ultrasonic test especially. Titanium seamless tubes must withstand high pressures. For this reason the titanium seamless tubes are conducted ultrasonic test necessarily.

All operations concerned with ultrasonic test we are realizing on our plant. On our plant high-qualified experts for ultrasonic test are working. At present time a lot of enterprises accomplish ultrasonic test of titanium ingots, titanium bars, aluminium bars, cupper bars. But  many enterprises could not purchase ultrasonic equipment because of their expensiveness and conduct ultrasonic test of titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium machined bars and titanium hot rolled bars, cupper bars and aluminium bars and ingots yourselves. In connection with this our plant offer the whole range of services for conducting of ultrasonic test of titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium forgings. The ultrasonic test allows you to certify the quality of your materials. The ultrasonic test is carrying out on turned titanium ingots, titanium bars (titanium ingot, titanium bar).Buying titanium ingots and titanium bars VT1-0, VT6, VT6S or according to ASTM Grade1, Grade2, Ti6AL/4V, Grade5 we realize ultrasonic test and reflect the conducting of ultrasonic test in certificate of ultrasonic test conducting on titanium ingots, titanium bars VT1-0,

VT6, Grade1, Grade2, Ti6AL4V, Grade5. The grade of titanium bar, titanium ingot doesnt mean for conducting of ultrasonic test. The titanium bars could be of the following grades VT1-0, VT6, VT20, VT22, PT3V, 3M, OT4, VT3-1, VT14, VT16, VT23, VT25, PT1M, PT7M, alloy 2V, Alloy 5V, Alloy 40, Alloy 14, Alloy 14, Alloy19, Alloy 37, Alloy 27, TS5, AS5. Our titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium wire other titanium materials could be supplied with ultrasonic test as well as without ultrasonic testing. The ultrasonic testing are especially need for Titanium ingots, titanium bars VT1-0, VT6, VT20, VT22, PT3V, 3M, OT4, VT3-1, VT14, VT16, VT23, VT25, PT1M, PT7M, alloy 2V, Alloy 5V, Alloy 40, Alloy 14, Alloy 14, Alloy19, Alloy 37, Alloy 27, TS5, AS5 since we are carrying out ultrasonic testing for these titanium ingots, titanium bars.

 

 

ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE

 

Ultrasound or sonography, in medicine, technique that uses sound waves to study and treat hard-to-reach body areas. In scanning with ultrasound, high-frequency sound waves are transmitted to the area of interest and the returning echoes recorded, study and application of the energy of sound waves vibrating at frequencies greater than 20,000 cycles per second, i.e., beyond the range of human hearing.

First developed in World War II to locate submerged objects, the technique is now widely used in virtually every branch of medicine, the science and art of treating and preventing disease. In obstetrics it is used to study the age, sex, and level of development of the fetus and to determine the presence of birth defects or other potential problems. Its use to determine fetal sex has led to the widespread abortion of female fetuses in some countries, such as China and India, where male offspring are more highly valued. Ultrasound is used in cardiology to detect heart damage and in ophthalmology to detect retinal problems. It is also used to heat joints, relieving arthritic joint pain, and for such procedures as lithotripsy, in which shock waves break up kidney stones, eliminating the need for surgery. Ultrasound is noninvasive, involves no radiation, and avoids the possible hazardssuch as bleeding, infection, or reactions to chemicalsof other diagnostic methods.

 

Although ultrasound has been used in medicine since the 1930's, it is only recently that these techniques have been widely used and their potential fully recognized. Medical ultrasonics is now in a period of rapid growth and is on the verge of making a significant impact on clinical medicine. The field provides challenging and important engineering problems, which are unique to medicine and biology. It is an open proving ground to many techniques developed for other applications and gives inspiration to the development of new technological advances. This review outlines some of the basic principles of ultrasonics, discusses the acoustical properties of biological tissues, provides a historical perspective of the use of ultrasound in medicine, describes ultrasonic techniques presently used in the clinic as well as those now under development, and reports on the standardization of medical ultrasonic procedures and measurements.

Ultrasound is becoming increasingly important in medicine and is now taking its place along with X-ray and nuclear medicine as an important diagnostic tool. Every day in thousands of hospitals and medical centers around the world, ultrasound is in routine clinical use in such diverse body regions as the brain, heart, liver, kidney, fetal and reproductive systems. In many ways ultrasound is an ideal diagnostic tool-it is non invasive, externally applied, non traumatic and as all available data indicate, apparently safe at the acoustical intensities and duty cycles encountered in existing diagnostic equipment.

 

There are many different issues connected with ultrasound medical application. But anyway the physical mechanism of this phenomenon should include next processes: the spread of ultrasound in biological environment such as humans body, the interaction of ultrasound with components of this environment and measurement and registration of acoustic emission.

 

 

Obstetric Ultrasound is the use of ultrasound scans in pregnancy. Since its introduction in the late 1950s ultrasonography has become a very useful diagnostic tool in Obstetrics.

Currently used equipments are known as real-time scanners, with which a continous picture of the moving fetus can be depicted on a monitor screen. Very high frequency sound waves of between 3.5 to 7.0 megahertz (i.e. 3.5 to 7 million cycles per second) are generally used for this purpose.

They are emitted from a transducer which is placed in contact with the maternal abdomen, and is moved to "look at" (likened to a light shined from a torch) any particular content of the uterus. Repetitive arrays of ultrasound beams scan the fetus in thin slices and are reflected back onto the same transducer.

The information obtained from different reflections are recomposed back into a picture on the monitor screen (a sonogram, or ultrasonogram). Movements such as fetal heart beat and malformations in the feus can be assessed and measurements can be made accurately on the images displayed on the screen. Such measurements form the cornerstone in the assessment of gestational age, size and growth in the fetus.

 

 

 

Ophthalmology

Eye and orbit ultrasounds

Definition

Ultrasound imaging equipment allows eye specialists (ophthalmologists) to "see" the eye in great detail without the pain and risk of exploratory surgery, or the limitations and uncertainty inherent to traditional visual examination. Ultrasound is used to detect and diagnose many eye diseases and injuries, to measure the eye prior to corrective surgery, and directly as a treatment tool.

 

Purpose

An ophthalmologist uses ultrasonic imaging to help diagnose the underlying cause(s) of a patient's symptoms, to assess the general condition of an injured eye, and to measure the eye prior to corrective surgery. Situations that may call for ultrasonic imaging include:

                                 Excessive tearing or visible infection. These external symptoms could indicate a serious underlying problem such as a tumor, an internal infection, the presence of a deeply lodged irritant (foreign body), or the effects of a previously unrecognized injury. When presented with general symptoms, ultrasound can speed diagnosis if a serious condition is suspected.

                                 Impaired vision. Fuzzy vision, poor night vision, restricted (tunnel) vision, blind spots, extreme light sensitivity, and even blindness can all stem from inner eye conditions ranging from glaucoma and cataracts, to retinitis, detached retina, tumors, or impaired blood circulation. Again, high resolution ultrasound can quickly identify causes and pinpoint their location. A special type of ultrasound, known as Doppler, can even perceive and measure circulation in the tiny blood vessels of the eye.

                                 Eye trauma. The eye can be damaged by a direct impact or a puncture wound, as a result of a general head trauma, or by intense light exposure. Even when the cause of injury is obvious, ultrasound can reveal the exact type, extent, and location of damage, from deformations and ruptures to internal bleeding, and help to guide emergency care efforts.

                                 Lens replacement surgery. Exact measurement of the eye's optical dimensions with ultrasound greatly improves the visual outcome for cataract patients receiving permanent synthetic lenses; and for severely myopic patients receiving implanted corrective lenses.

Ophthalmic ultrasound imaging is also used routinely to guide the precise placement of instruments during surgery, and can be used directly for the treatment of glaucoma and tumors of the eye.

Precautions

Ultrasound of the eye, properly performed by qualified personnel using appropriate equipment, has no risks. There is no evidence to suggest that the procedure itself poses any threat to a healthy eye, or worsens the condition of a diseased or injured eye.

Description

Ophthalmic ultrasound equipment sends high frequency pulses of sound into the eye, where they bounce off the boundaries between different structures in the eye and produce a distinctive pattern of echoes. This echo pattern is received and interpreted by a computer to produce an image on a television screen. The time it takes an echo to return to the receiver corresponds to the depth it traveled into the eye.

Single transducer (the sound transmitter/receiver) ultrasound is used to measure distances within the eye. This is A-mode ultrasound. A linear array of transducers in a single small probe, B-mode, provides a picture of a cross section through the eye. Doppler mode ultrasound combines B-mode with the ability to detect and measure the flow of blood in the tiny vessels of the eye.

As a direct treatment tool, the vibrations of high intensity A-mode ultrasound can be used to heat and erode tumors. The same technique can be used to control glaucoma by selectively destroying the cells which produce the fluid that causes the internal pressure of the eye to rise.

The procedure followed in a regular ultrasonic eye examination is relatively simple. The patient relaxes in a comfortable chair in a darkened room. Mild anesthetic eye drops are administered and the head is held secure. The ultrasonic probe, coated with a sterile gel to ensure good contact, is lightly pressed against the eye as the images are made. The probe may be applied to the eyelid or directly to the eye, as necessary. The patient feels nothing else, and the whole office procedure takes about 15 minutes.

Preparation

Preparation by the patient is generally unnecessary, although under special circumstances an ophthalmologist may perform pretest procedures. The ophthalmologist and/or ultrasound technician will conduct all preparations at the time of the test.

Aftercare

Patients may experience partial and temporary blurred vision, as well as "eye strain" headaches. These symptoms usually fade within an hour of the procedure, during which time patients should rest their eyes and avoid all activities that require good eyesight, like driving.

Risks

Improperly focused, high-intensity ultrasound could burn and physically disrupt delicate eye tissue and cause injury. This risk is, however, slight and would arise only from improper use, or as a potential side effect of tumor or glaucoma treatment.

 

 

Normal results

A normal ultrasound scan would indicate a fully healthy eye. For therapeutic ultrasound, a normal result would be an improvement in the targeted condition, such as shrinking of a tumor or lessening of pressure inside the eye of a glaucoma patient.

Abnormal results

Because diagnostic ultrasound is generally used to investigate symptoms, the results of a scan will often be abnormal and they will detect evidence of an underlying condition.

 

 

Internal investigation

Ultrasound can diagnose ailments, assist in treatments, and also is a therapy in and of itself. Ultrasound is perhaps the most diverse technology available today.

Cardiologists have been using it  for decades to help assess the health of patients' hearts. News of ultrasound spread to the general public in the 1970s, when obstetricians used it with great frequency to monitor fetal development. Doctors could learn the size of the fetus, identify any growth problems or abnormalities. and even give parents a sneak preview of the baby's sex. At that time, other applications still were only a vision. Obstetricians frequently use ultrasound to get valuable information, including:

* The number, size, and age of fetuses in the uterus. Age can be determined by measuring the length of the fetus or the length of the thigh bone and the circumference of the head.

* Location of the fetus or placenta. which is helpful in the delivery of breech babies or during amniocentesis.

* Fetal movement, breathing, and heartbeat.

* Amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus, an aid in the assessment of fetal health.

Recent improvements in ultrasound's image quality, combined with its ease of use, has catapulted this technology into almost every branch of medicine. Ultrasound provides instant displays of organs that are more accurate than other imaging devices. It identifies organ abnormalities of soft tissue that can not be seen with X-rays. Most importantly, ultrasound is a noninvasive method that has no known risks and spares many patients the trauma and pain of exploratory surgery.

One way physicians use ultrasound to see inside the patient's body is with a procedure known as pulse-echo imaging. A microphone-like device, known as a transducer. is moved across the skin over the part of the body the doctor needs to view. The transducer emits sound waves (ultrasound) that, when they bounce off various tissues and organs. generate distinctive echoes that are conveyed to a computer. The computer translates the timing and strength of these echoes into an image of the internal organs or tissues targeted by the ultrasound beam. The ultrasound image, or sonogram, usually is viewed on a television screen.

Ultrasound imaging is an excellent tool for examining organs to check for any internal abnormalities and probing tissues for tumors, cysts, or abscesses. Unlike X-rays, sonograms can reveal not only if there is a lump in a particular area, but if it is likely to be a benign cyst or a solid tumor.

Another form of ultrasound imaging, known as duplex Doppler, combines imaging and the Doppler, a device that measures speed of movement of the subject. This produces a spectro-analysis, or profile of blood flow information, by looking at velocity direction of flow, timing, and intensity (how many blood cells are moving at any given time). This type of ultrasound makes use of the commonly observed phenomenon that sound changes pitch when it strikes moving objects--a train whistle has a higher and lower pitch as it passes another train. In the body, Doppler ultrasound can record the changes in pitch as sound waves bounce off circulating blood or the beating heart. A computer then uses the information to determine how fast blood is flowing across the valves in the heart.

Ultrasound can alert physicians to potentially life-threatening situations. For example, a bulge in an artery detected by ultrasound may signal an aneurysm. Such an irregularity in a blood vessel wall, if not treated by surgery, ultimately could burst, resulting in potentially deadly internal bleeding. Blood clots in the legs can be pinpointed with Doppler ultrasound. If the clot travels to a lung, the result could be a pulmonary embolism causing immediate death--a major cause of fatalities among cancer patients.

Dangerous buildups of plaque in the carotid arteries, on either side of the neck and the main suppliers of blood to the brain, can be detected by ultrasound. Early discovery and removal of this plaque can prevent strokes.

In the field of cardiology, doctors use this form of imaging to help assess the over-all condition of patients' hearts; in place of an angiography, an invasive, riskier, and more uncomfortable way of assessing the health of the heart; to determine the size and shape of the chambers and valves of the heart as it beats, revealing whether the organ is functioning at optimal condition; and to detect abnormalities such as tumors, calcium deposits, or an enlarged region of the heart.

Doppler ultrasound is used to find clots in veins and assess if artery grafts in the legs are working properly. Stones in the kidney or gallbladder can be identified by diagnostic imaging, which also determines whether organs or tissue are enlarged abnormally. Oversized lymph nodes. For instance, may suggest a cancerous condition.

If a needle biopsy is warranted, ultrasound imaging can show physicians where to insert the needle to extract cells from the abnormal tissue instead of resorting to surgery. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared more precise needle biopsy systems whereby a miniature ultrasound transducer is attached to the top of the needle. From information gathered by the transducer and translated by a computer, doctors can see on a television monitor exactly where the needle tip is at all times during a biopsy.

 

Abdominal ultrasound

Definition

Ultrasound technology allows doctors to "see" inside a patient without resorting to surgery. A transmitter sends high frequency sound waves into the body, where they bounce off the different tissues and organs to produce a distinctive pattern of echoes. A receiver "hears" the returning echo pattern and forwards it to a computer, which translates the data into an image on a television screen. Because ultrasound can distinguish subtle variations between soft, fluid-filled tissues, it is particularly useful in providing diagnostic images of the abdomen. Ultrasound can also be used in treatment.

Purpose

The potential medical applications of ultrasound were first recognized in the 1940s as an outgrowth of the sonar technology developed to detect submarines during World War II. The first useful medical images were produced in the early 1950s, and, by 1965, ultrasound quality had improved to the point that it came into general medical use. Improvements in the technology, application, and interpretation of ultrasound continue. Its low cost, versatility, safety and speed have brought it into the top drawer of medical imaging techniques.

While pelvic ultrasound is widely known and commonly used for fetal monitoring during pregnancy, ultrasound is also routinely used for general abdominal imaging. It has great advantage over x-ray imaging technologies in that it does not damage tissues with ionizing radiation. Ultrasound is also generally far better than plain x rays at distinguishing the subtle variations of soft tissue structures, and can be used in any of several modes, depending on the need at hand.

As an imaging tool, abdominal ultrasound generally is warranted for patients afflicted with: chronic or acute abdominal pain; abdominal trauma; an obvious or suspected abdominal mass; symptoms of liver disease, pancreatic disease, gallstones, spleen disease, kidney disease and urinary blockage; or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Specifically:

                                 Abdominal pain. Whether acute or chronic, pain can signal a serious problem--from organ malfunction or injury to the presence of malignant growths. Ultrasound scanning can help doctors quickly sort through potential causes when presented with general or ambiguous symptoms. All of the major abdominal organs can be studied for signs of disease that appear as changes in size, shape and internal structure.

                                 Abdominal trauma. After a serious accident, such as a car crash or a fall, internal bleeding from injured abdominal organs is often the most serious threat to survival. Neither the injuries nor the bleeding are immediately apparent. Ultrasound is very useful as an initial scan when abdominal trauma is suspected, and it can be used to pinpoint the location, cause, and severity of hemorrhaging. In the case of puncture wounds, from a bullet for example, ultrasound can locate the foreign object and provide a preliminary survey of the damage. The easy portability and versatility of ultrasound technology has brought it into common emergency room use, and even into limited ambulance service.

                                 Abdominal mass. Abnormal growths--tumors, cysts, abscesses, scar tissue and accessory organs--can be located and tentatively identified with ultrasound. In particular, potentially malignant solid tumors can be distinguished from benign fluid-filled cysts and abscesses. Masses and malformations in any organ or part of the abdomen can be found.

                                 Liver disease. The types and underlying causes of liver disease are numerous, though jaundice tends to be a general symptom. Ultrasound can differentiate between many of the types and causes of liver malfunction, and is particularly good at identifying obstruction of the bile ducts and cirrhosis, which is characterized by abnormal fibrous growths and reduced blood flow.

                                 Pancreatic disease. Inflammation and malformation of the pancreas are readily identified by ultrasound, as are pancreatic stones (calculi), which can disrupt proper functioning.

                                 Gallstones. Gallstones cause more hospital admissions than any other digestive malady. These calculi can cause painful inflammation of the gallbladder and also obstruct the bile ducts that carry digestive enzymes from the gallbladder and liver to the intestines. Gallstones are readily identifiable with ultrasound.

                                 Spleen disease. The spleen is particularly prone to injury during abdominal trauma. It may also become painfully inflamed when beset with infection or cancer. These conditions also lend themselves well to ultrasonic inspection and diagnosis.

                                 Kidney disease. The kidneys are also prone to traumatic injury and are the organs most likely to form calculi, which can block the flow of urine and cause blood poisoning (uremia). A variety of diseases causing distinct changes in kidney morphology can also lead to complete kidney failure. Ultrasound imaging has proven extremely useful in diagnosing kidney disorders.

                                 Abdominal aortic aneurysm. This is a bulging weak spot in the abdominal aorta, which supplies blood directly from the heart to the entire lower body. These aneurysms are relatively common and increase in prevalence with age. A burst aortic aneurysm is imminently life-threatening. However, they can be readily identified and monitored with ultrasound before acute complications result.

External and surface organs

Thyroid and suckling glands, though and easily accessible to the ultrasonic inspection, often require the use of aquatic and ionic buffer, that the anomalies of near area of the field did not influence on an image. At research a thyroid and para-thyroid gland basic application of ultrasound is distinction of gangliac and hard creations, that it is possibly at good suppression of noise and artifacts, that are caused by reverberation and side lobes of radiation.

 

 

 

     
       
 
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